Editors evaluate submitted manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit (importance, originality, study’s validity, clarity) and its relevance to the journal’s scope, without regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin, citizenship, religious belief, political philosophy or institutional affiliation. Decisions to edit and publish are not determined by the policies of governments or any other agencies outside of the journal itself. The Editor-in-Chief has full authority over the entire editorial content of the journal and the timing of publication of that content.
Editors and editorial staff will not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
Editors and editorial board members will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained by editors as a result of handling the manuscript will be kept confidential and not used for their personal advantage. Editors will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the papers; instead, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.
The editors ensure that all submitted manuscripts being considered for publication undergo peer-review by at least two reviewers who are expert in the field. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for deciding which of the manuscripts submitted to the journal will be published, based on the validation of the work in question, its importance to researchers and readers, the reviewers’ comments, and such legal requirements as are currently in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
Editors (in conjunction with the publisher and/or society) will take responsive measures when ethical concerns are raised with regard to a submitted manuscript or published paper. Every reported act of unethical publishing behavior will be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication. IJEBA editors follow the COPE Flowcharts when dealing with cases of suspected misconduct. If, on investigation, the ethical concern is well-founded, a correction, retraction, expression of concern or other note as may be relevant will be published in the journal.
Peer review assists editors in making editorial decisions and, through editorial communications with authors, may assist authors in improving their manuscripts. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication and lies at the heart of scientific endeavor. IJEBA shares the view of many that all scholars who wish to contribute to the scientific process have an obligation to do a fair share of reviewing.
Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows
that its prompt review will be impossible should immediately notify the editors and decline the
invitation to review so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.
Any manuscripts received for review are confidential documents and must be treated as such; they
must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the Editor-in-Chief (who would
only do so under exceptional and specific circumstances). This applies also to invited reviewers who
decline the review invitation.
Reviews should be conducted objectively and observations formulated clearly with supporting
arguments so that authors can use them for improving the manuscript. Personal criticism of the authors
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any
statement that is an observation, derivation or argument that has been reported in previous publications
should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also notify the editors of any
substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other manuscript
(published or unpublished) of which they have personal knowledge.
Any invited referee who has conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other
relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the
manuscript and the work described therein should immediately notify the editors to declare their
conflicts of interest and decline the invitation to review so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.
Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer’s own
research without the express written consent of the authors. Privileged information or ideas obtained
through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for the reviewer’s personal advantage.
This applies also to invited reviewers who decline the review invitation.
Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed and the results,
followed by an objective discussion of the significance of the work. The manuscript should contain
sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Review articles should be
accurate, objective and comprehensive, while editorial 'opinion' or perspective pieces should be clearly
identified as such. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are
Authors may be asked to provide the raw data of their study together with the manuscript for editorial
review and should be prepared to make the data publicly available if practicable. In any event, authors
should ensure accessibility of such data to other competent professionals for at least 10 years after
publication (preferably via an institutional or subject-based data repository or other data center),
provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and legal rights concerning
proprietary data do not preclude their release.
Authors should ensure that they have written and submit only entirely original works, and if they have
used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited. Publications that have
been influential in determining the nature of the work reported in the manuscript should also be cited.
Plagiarism takes many forms, from "passing off" another's paper as the author's own, to copying or
paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper (without attribution), to claiming results from
research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and
Papers describing essentially the same research should not be published in more than one journal or
primary publication. Hence, authors should not submit for consideration a manuscript that has already
been published in another journal. Submission of a manuscript concurrently to more than one journal
is unethical publishing behavior and unacceptable.
The publication of some kinds of articles (such as clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one
journal is sometimes justifiable, provided that certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of
the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and
interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary
Only persons who meet these authorship criteria should be listed as authors in the manuscript as they
must be able to take public responsibility for the content: (i) made significant contributions to the
conception, design, execution, data acquisition, or analysis/interpretation of the study; and (ii) drafted
the manuscript or revised it critically for important intellectual content; and (iii) have seen and
approved the final version of the paper and agreed to its submission for publication. All persons who
made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript (such as technical help, writing
and editing assistance, general support) but who do not meet the criteria for authorship must not be
listed as an author, but should be acknowledged in the "Acknowledgments" section after their written
permission to be named as been obtained. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate
coauthors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate coauthors are included in the author
list and verify that all coauthors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript and agreed
to its submission for publication.
Authors should—at the earliest stage possible (generally by submitting a disclosure form at the time of
submission and including a statement in the manuscript)—disclose any conflicts of interest that might
be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. Examples of potential
conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include financial ones such as honoraria, educational
grants or other funding, participation in speakers’ bureaus, membership, employment, consultancies,
stock ownership, or other equity interest, and paid expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements,
as well as non-financial ones such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or
beliefs in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. All sources of financial support
for the work should be disclosed (including the grant number or other reference number if any).
Authors should ensure that they have properly acknowledged the work of others, and should also cite
publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information
obtained privately (from conversation, correspondence or discussion with third parties) must not be
used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Authors should not use
information obtained in the course of providing confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts
or grant applications, unless they have obtained the explicit written permission of the author(s) of the
work involved in these services.
Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and cooperate fully by responding
promptly to editors’ requests for raw data, clarifications, and proof of ethics approval, patient consents
and copyright permissions. In the case of a first decision of "revisions necessary", authors should
respond to the reviewers’ comments systematically, point by point, and in a timely manner, revising
and re-submitting their manuscript to the journal by the deadline given.
When authors discover significant errors or inaccuracies in their own published work, it is their
obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editors or publisher and cooperate with them to either
correct the paper in the form of an erratum or to retract the paper. If the editors or publisher learns
from a third party that a published work contains a significant error or inaccuracy, then it is the
authors’ obligation to promptly correct or retract the paper or provide evidence to the journal editors of
the correctness of the paper.
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism, the publisher,
in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to
amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum, clarification or, in
the most severe case, the retraction of the affected work. The publisher, together with the editors, shall
take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has
occurred, and under no circumstances encourage such misconduct or knowingly allow such
misconduct to take place.
The publisher is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and
ensures accessibility by partnering with organizations and maintaining our own digital archive.